2014 Index

| November 2, 2014

PESL Vol 13 JUly 2014

Volume 13 July 2014

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Foreword. Alejandro S. Bernardo, Ph.D. and Leah Espada-Gustilo, Ph.D.

This issue of the Philippine ESL Journal features articles that center on a very interesting field of linguistics, discourse analysis, which is a contemporary discipline of the social sciences covering an array of diverse sociolinguistic approaches.
The first article, “Implicating and enriching a discourse: An analysis of ‘what is said’” by Ana Christina Fortes looked into the observance and non-observance of the Filipino celebrities of Grice’s Cooperative Principle and its maxims while they are interviewed by media reporters, while the second, “The deictic demonstratives of Ayta Magbukun” by Monica R. Cabanding tagged and examined the spatial deictic expressions of Ayta Magbukun speakers demonstrating the frequent occurrence of the body-anchored demonstratives in spoken discourse. The other two papers, namely, “Ah as a polyfunctional discourse marker in Filipino language” by Jennifer Diamante and “Political implicatures in a locally practiced discourse: An analysis of a Philippine president’s state of the nation address“ by Carlo Joseph M. Juanzo, explored the mutifunctionality of Tagalog expression “ah” as used by speakers in monologic discourse and identified the implicatures embedded in a monologic political discursive practice, respectively. The last paper, “The universality of Neo-Gricean anaphoric repairs as evident in Filipino-teacher and Korean-student talk” by Selwen Cruz and Dr. Jose Christina Parina determined the most usual anaphoric repair made by Korean students and Filipino-teachers during teacher-student conversations and the most preponderant type of repair for each type of interlocutor. These articles present findings that would certainly be of interest to linguists, educators, ESL and ELT practitioners, and researchers from allied disciplines.We also wish to acknowledge the invaluable contribution of the pool of reviewers for they thoroughly scrutinized the papers included in this issue: Dr. Francis Dumanig of the University of Malaya, Dr. Teresita Tajolosa of Palawan State University, Dr. Irish Siozon of St. Scholastica Academy, Ms. Flora Debora Floris of Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia, and Dr. Maria B. Cequeña of the University of Santo Tomas.
It is our fervent hope that this issue will serve as a potent venue for disseminating scholarly findings and that other researchers will be enticed to publish their papers in the Philippine ESL Journal, a fitting way to contribute to the existing body of knowledge especially in the field of applied linguistics.


Implicating and Enriching a Discourse: An Analysis of ‘what is said’. Ana Cristina Gatchalian Fortes

The present study aims to investigate the observance and non-observance of the Filipino celebrities to Grice’s Cooperative Principle and its maxims while they are engaged in a newspaper interview.  Recanati’s pragmatic enrichment and Carston’s theory on explicatures were also used to analyze how these celebrities enrich what they have said.  With the 307 utterances, the participants are highly cooperative and mostly observe the maxim of relevance, but flout maxims of quality, quantity, and manner. By the participants’ flouting, the clash among the maxims leads to a certain communicative effect. The participants enrich ‘what is said’ through expansion that leads to a richer proposition. The result of this study is an assertion that the more the participants enrich their utterances, the more they are providing implicatures. Finally, pragmatic meaning can be realized when ‘what is said’ and ‘what is implicated’ are considered by  interlocutors.


The Deictic Demonstratives of Ayta Magbukun. Monica R. Cabanding

Drawing on Diessel’s (1999) grammatical categories of demonstratives, the study tagged and analyzed the spatial deictic expressions of Ayta Magbukun speakers demonstrating the frequent occurrence of the body -anchored demonstratives in spoken discourse. Using the natural occurring conversations of the language, results of the frequency count and syntactic analysis show that Magbukun speakers utilize several linguistic expressions of demonstratives referring to objects , people, locations and discourse entities. Hay, consistently a distal deictic, is a “neutral” expression for deictic projection as adnominal demonstrative. The varied repertoire of expressions is deemed to be a reflection of the group’s assimilation to their environment as they maintain being hunter gatherers for a living.


Ah as a Polyfunctional Discourse Marker in Filipino Language. Jennifier T. Diamante

This study examines the mutifunctionality of Tagalog expression “ah” as used by speakers in monologic discourse. A total of 262 minute – audio recording taken from four speech events was subjected to analysis. Results show that, like other discourse markers (DMs), “ah”, is not a part of syntactic structure, can take place anywhere in a sentence, has multiple discourse functions, and co-occurs with other DMs. The study identified three major functions of “ah” and showed that it frequently serves as hesitation marker particularly when the speaker tries to make himself/herself clearer and more comprehensible to the audience, then, as part of DM stack, and finally, as gap –filling device. Results of the study proved to have implications for teaching and learning research.


Political Implicatures in a Locally Practiced Discourse: An Analysis of a Philippine President’s State of the Nation Address. Carlo Joseph M. Juanzo

Political implicature (van Dijk, 2005) is a new strand in the Gricean implicature framework. It refers to the implicitly expressed notions in a discursive act exclusively actualized in a political arena. The present investigation wishes to identify the implicatures embedded in a monologic political discursive practice. I found that unlike the initial proposition of van Dijk (2005), localized culture, context and discursive practices influence the unique features of a semantically-determinant act in the Philippines. Also, I put forth the notion that a monologic discursive act of a national leader highly influences the public’s knowledge, and that rich implicatures are inherent in a political privilege.


The Universality of Neo-Gricean anaphoric Repairs as Evident in Filipino-Teacher and Korean-Student Talk. Selwyn A. Cruz and Jose Cristina M. Pariña

The complexity of anaphoric expressions has led to different theories in anaphoric repairs – all of which has the goal of explaining anaphoric distribution in discourse. This paper has then tested one prominent theory in the field of Pragmatics which has been proven true in several settings such as the Philippines and China. In order to determine its universality, the Neo-Gricean anaphoric repair was tested on five Korean students during their conversations with their Filipino teachers in order to determine the most common anaphoric repair made by Korean students and Filipino-teachers during teacher-student conversations and the most preponderant type of repair for each type of interlocutor. In doing so, a descriptive method was exhausted and results of the analysis show that the most common of all is the “other-initiated self-repair” which also happens to be the most common in the studies that Yan Huang has conducted using the Neo-Gricean framework. This only demonstrates that culture and language may vary, but a discourse will still have a resemblance as shown in the occurrences of each type of anaphoric repair. The current study can then be a substantial contribution in pragmatics and semantics with regard to human action and interaction. Pedagogically, this systematic analysis of conversations of Philippine English and Korean English may enable researchers to identify basic patterns that could help language teachers to understand how Filipinos and Koreans converse using English which happens to be their second language.



Volume 12 February 2014

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Foreword. Leah Espada Gustilo and Andrew Bernardo

On behalf of the Editorial board, we would like to extend our heartfelt gratitude to those who continue to make Philippine ESL journal a resource for knowledge creation and dissemination in the area of ESL research in the Philippines and its neighbouring countries. Special thanks to Dr. Teresita Tajolosa from Palawan State University, Philippines, and Ms. Flora Debora Floris from Petra Christian University, Indonesia, for their time and effort in reviewing the articles and in giving their invaluable comments in order to improve the articles.In this special issue, three articles on discourse analysis are featured. First, the abridged version of Kexiu Yin’s doctoral dissertation examined whether the role of speaking the truth has been duly performed by intellectuals in mainland China, by analyzing five public events in 453 journalistic texts from leading English newspapers in mainland China, Hongkong, and other Asian countries from 2008-2012 using Critical Discourse Analysis framework. Second, Miciano’s abridged masteral thesis used genre analysis, to look into the moves, strategies, and cognitive structuring of job application letters written by Filipinos. Third, using intercultural rhetoric and genre analyses frameworks, Ying Zhu and Gocheco’s paper examined the rhetorical structures and metadiscoursal features found in the introduction section of research article genre in two different cultural contexts–English L1 texts by native speakers of English and L2 texts written by Chinese speakers


Kexiu Yin. “Speaking the truth”? A CDA Perspective of Intellectual Role Performance In Leading English Newspapers in Mainland China

With the theoretical and methodological insights from the critical discourse analysis (CDA), the study aims to explore how the intellectual role performance can be systematically examined and discussed by discourse analysts. In order to investigate whether the role of speaking the truth has been duly performed by intellectuals in mainland China, the topics of five public events that took place in mainland China across 2008-2012 in a total of 453 texts taken from the leading English newspapers in mainland China, Hong Kong and other countries were analyzed. The research findings show that: (1) the inclusivity of topics in the English newspapers in mainland China is generally low; (2) the topics excluded from the English newspapers in mainland China seem to constitute a pattern of omission that disfavors the Chinese government; (3) the intellectual role performance in mainland China in terms of speaking the truth may be compromised due to the selective pattern of topic choice; and (4) the social constraints on intellectual role performance in mainland China may include the state-owned background of the media, the reliance on advertising revenue, the dependence on government sourcing, the apprehension of flak and the fear of subversive forces. Finally, the implications for future research on intellectual discourse are provided.


Mishima Z. Miciano. “Greetings! I am …”: A Genre Analysis of Job Application Letters written by Filipinos

Using genre analysis, this research looks into a form of business communication that is often overlooked and that is written by a group of nonnative English speakers: job application letters written by Filipino applicants for different positions. The goals are: (1) to characterize the participants involved in the writing and reading of genre and its role in the recruitment process, (2) to determine the rhetorical moves, strategies, and cognitive structuring of the corpus and (3) to explain these tactical choices in relation to the genre’s context. The analysis shows rhetorical moves and strategies that are unique to the corpus and a predominantly indirect cognitive structuring, contrary to the prescribed organization in textbooks. These characteristics may be explained by the social context of the genre. Implications for teaching and research are presented.


Ying Zhu and Paulina M. Gocheco. A Contrastive Study on the Macro-structure and Metadiscoursal Features of the Introduction Section in the English L1 and Chinese L2 Research Articles

This paper reports a contrastive study on the rhetorical structures and metadiscourse resources used in the introduction section of research article genre in two different cultural contexts–English L1 texts by native speakers of English and L2 texts by Chinese speakers. The researchers examined RA introductions in the field of Applied Linguistics by adopting Swales’ (1990, 2004) CARS Model and Hyland’s (2005) metadiscourse model as investigative tools. Through an analysis of 100 RA introductions, the study found that not only at the macro level but at the micro level, English writers seem to be more sophisticated than Chinese writers in the realization of genre structures and metadiscourse categories. Chinese L2 texts tend to display a less elaborate but more implicit version than L1 texts. The major differences identified between groups are most likely to be attributed to socio-cultural factors, that is, Confucian Thought and Collectivism in China, versus Aristotelian Philosophy and Individualism in western countries. The results gained from this study could help teachers devise relevant EAP teaching materials for Chinese writers to develop their writing skills and meet the expectations of native-English speaking readers.{


Category: 2014